Bioethanol – is a liquid alcohol fuel produced from agricultural products, containing starch or sugar, for example corn, crops or sugar cane. Unlike spirits for alcohol production, fuel ethanol does not contain water and is produced by the method of speeded distillation (two rectification columns instead of five) and as a result contains methanol and fusel oils, as well as petrol.
Cellulosic ethanol is mostly widespread in Brazil, the USA, Sweden. Ethanol is a more “densely concentrated” source of energy than petrol and is not used alone, only mixed with petrol in equal proportions. Mixture E-10 contains 10% of bioethanol, E-85 correspondingly 85%. Any modern vehicle can be refueled with the 10% fuel without any readjustment, but the 85% fuel needs readjusting the engine and the feed system. There also exist the so called Flex-Feul vehicles (FFV), which can operate both on petrol and its mixture with ethanol in any proportions.
Bio fuel cell is neutral as a source of greenhouse gases. It has a zero balance carbon dioxide, as in the process of its production by fermentation and its further combustion the same quantity of CO2 is emitted as was bound from atmosphere by the plants used for its production.
The oxygen contained in ethanol allows to combust the hydrocarbon of the fuel more completely. 10% content of ethanol in petrol allows reducing the exhaust of aerosol particles up to 50%, the exhaust of CO – by 30%.
In 2006 the use of ethanol in the USA allowed to reduce the exhaust of about 8 million tons of greenhouse gases ( in CO2 equivalent), which makes up approximately a yearly exhaust of 1,21 million vehicles.
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